As we know that, during the several years ago, mushroom demand in Indian market grown very well but as per demand there is huge lack of supply. In such scenario, farmers can do mushroom farming and make the good profit from this.
In each district,there is one Krishi Vigyan Kendra, where farmers can go and interact with government officials.
three types of mushrooms are produce, right now, Farmers can do frozen mushroom farming from September to November 15 and then produce the button mushroom, this crop goes on till February to march , followed by the production of Milky mushroom lasts from June to July
What is Mushroom
We all think that Mushrooms are vegetables but this is not the case Because vegetable grow their food through the Photosynthesize. As you know plants contain chlorophyll.it helps plant to convert energy into carbohydrates. There is no chlorophyll in mushroom.It is derived from the Greek word ”Mykes” ,later known as Mushroom. Mushroom is a plant of immortality.it was discovered in Egypt 4600 years ago.
It is officially ordered by the king or Royal family for mushroom. Mushrooms are highly proteinaceous and are used as food. The white button mushroom is sold as fresh mushroom or is canned and made into soups, sauces and other food products.
Protein in mushrooms have 60-70 % digestibility and contains all the essential amino acids. It has medicinal properties also and So far nutrition. A high amount of protein is present in the button mushroom which is supposed to have an antagonistic effect on some forms of tumors.
Why Slow Progress of Mushroom in India
- Non-availability of funds.
- Poor harvest management and marketing
- No serious efforts have been made in popularizing other edible mushrooms in spite of abundant availability of raw materials, cheap labour force and suitability of agro climatic conditions.
- Use of unpasteurized compost widely prevalent with small growers.
- Utilizing locally available substrates for compost preparation has not been fully explored.
- Pasteurization technique for compost and casing need to be refined.
- Technology for successful cultivation of Oyster and Paddy straw Mushroom needs to be properly standardized.
- Serious efforts need to be made to evolve cheap production technology for other edible mushrooms.
- Research is required with respect to the right stage of picking, grading and preservation.
- Practical training is necessary to create right environment as well as awareness to properly learn the art of mushroom farming.
Growing method of Oyster Mushroom:
Oyster mushroom cultivation is very easy and inexpensive. It also has more medicinal properties than other mushrooms. It is in great demand in metros like Delhi, Calcutta, Mumbai and Chennai. That is why its production has increased 10-fold in the last three years. In Tamil Nadu and Orissa, it is sold in villages.
Its consumption is also considerable in the state of Karnataka. Oyster mushroom farming is also gaining popularity in states like Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Kerala, Rajasthan and Gujarat.Regarding oyster cultivation says, “Mushroom is cultivated through spawn (seed), for this, take mushroom spawn (seed) seven days in advance, do not keep the spawn of mushroom for one month, Seeds begin to deteriorate. It requires straw, polybag, carbendazim, formalin, and spawn (seed) for its production. Ten kilos of straw require one kilo of spawn, for this polybag, carbendazim, formalei No, it is needed. ”
After this, one kilo of dried straw is filled in a bag, three layers are to be placed in a bag, after applying a layer, the spawn is placed on the edge of the spawn and then the straw is placed on it, in this way three layers in a bag Has to be applied for mushroom farming.
In the fifteen days after applying the spawning in the bag, white oysters of the oyster start coming out, it starts coming out in the mushroom bag. The best thing in this mushroom is that the farmers can also dry and sell it, its taste is also the best among the three mushrooms.
Start this way ..
Ten kg of straw is soaked in 100 liters of water, 150 ml for this. Formalin, seven grams of corbendazine is dissolved in water and immersed ten kg of straw in it is treated. After soaking the straw for about twelve hours, that is, if you spread in the morning, in the evening and in the evening, then take out in the morning, after that, fill the straw in a mesh bag or spread it on the bed, which removes the excess water.
Package Of Practices of Mushroom
- Spawn Preparation
- Substrate Preparation
- Spawn Running
Compost preparation :
you will select the golden color yellowish straw or straw color would be same as wheat color.
You would use Formalin or Vavistin for treating the room , a place where you keep the straw and your dry straw.
You should keep Jute Bag and put all the straw into the Bag.once you done with this process.Keep it a side and Now pour the Formalin 2-4% mix with water. Now you just put the jute bag in water for the 12 to 14 hours.
Once it is completely wet took it out from the water and put it some sterilized place at least 3-4 hours. You keep the straw out from the bag so that formalin smell would be vanished.
At least 70% moisture should be in straw and you can identify moisture through misting in your hand. If ther is LADDU Formation done through the process. Our straw is ready for sowing.
How to do Mushroom Cultivation in India
There are four methods for spawning which is given below.
- Spot Spawning: In this method, You can put the straw in poly bag and then tied it and once it is tied you can do hole throughout the circle and put the spawn on those hole only. Generally this method is not used by farmers to to mushroom farming.
- Layer Spawning: This is the method which is used by farmers and professional mushroom grower . In this process you can make the layer like first straw then spawn. You should carry one thing in mind that is put the spawn side by side. It would help to grow and then hole in bag randomly. Just took the bag and put it in closed room where temperature would be 25 degree Celsius and humidity would be 90%. Room would be dark. If there is no ventilation in the room.Open the door short while . there would not be smell in the room.
After 15 days ,Humidity would be 85% and Temp 22 Degree Celsius.You don’t need to spray the water on the bag. Switch on the light 22 watt at least four to five hours and Ventilation 4-5 hours for fresh air.
- Surface Spawning : In this method , put the straw in upper side. It would not give higher production.
- Mixed Spawning : you can put the straw on ground and mixed the spawn into directly.
Fruiting: 7-10 days mushroom will come out.
Harvesting: You should harvest it after 25 days and did it frequently.
Variety of Mushroom
- Oyster Mushroom
- Shiitake Mushroom
- Reishi Mushroom
- Paddy Straw mushroom
- Milky Mushroom
Due to malnutrition every year lots of people lost their lives.
As we know that 868 million people suffering malnutrition in world but there is no worries to fill the malnutrition. Government has launched so many schemes to get over from this scenario. The village Anganvadi discussed for malnutrition and these workers take care of children. As far as , mushroom farming will increase in India, we will be able to increase the income and support the villagers by fulfilling the mushroom nutrition elements.
- 3 million people died due to malnutrition.
- Zero size children death during initial 1000 days.
Medicinal and Health Benefit of Mushroom
Due to lack of Selenium in body, It caused the prostate cancer. therefore Mushroom will help human,child,oda age and women to save from Prostate Cancer and Breast Cancer. Because mushroom consists Beta Glycine and Linoleic Acid. As per research There are some elements in Mushroom which prevent the cancer. Due to presence of Kaitin,Lycin and protein , it will help to stop creating tumor in human body.Mushroom consists of 22-35% Protein, which is greater than other plants.
- Mushroom consists of 8 to 22 microgram selenium. Selenium make health our cells and prevent the heart disease.By Consuming mushroom it will make our body resistance for disease.
- This is a great food alternative for Weighted people.Mushroom helps in weight loss because it has the LIN Acid.If you want to loose weight it will help you. Doctor advice for this also.
- Mushroom is a good for Diabetes People. Vitamin,KHANIJ and Fiber available in mushroom. There is no Carbohydrate, vasa and Sugar therefore Mushroom will help to make Insulin In body. Mushroom consists everything a Diabetes patient needed.
- Vitamin B is also available in Mushroom, which convert food into Glucose and create energy.
- Vitamin B2 and B3 fit the Metabolism.
- Folic Acid is also Available in Mushroom,which is only found in Non Veg product.Iron and Folic Acid will help Women to fulfill the lack of Iron. Doctor also give prescription for consuming the mushroom because there is huge nutrition mushroom.
- In short mushroom includes B1 ,B2, B3, B5, B6 ,Na,Mg and Mn elements.
- There are 9 amino acid in Mushroom.
- 20 Amino Acid is needed for Human Body Growth.
- Mushroom is easily digestible because lactic is available in mushroom.
- Potassium is needed for proper functioning of work which is available in mushroom.Potassium control the blood pressure because mushroom is some bit of salty.
Copper is also available in Mushroom which help to make healthy our bones and nerve.
Identification of Spawn
- If there is variety of color in black or brown pigments in spawn. It is not good quality spawn.Good quality spawn will look totally white look whenever you want to buy the spawn from the shop keeper. Buy mushroom spawn only with trusted resource center. When you purchase mushroom spawn, you should plan to use to all of it. Always take care of one thing once you have opened the mushroom spawn bag.
- The longer you keep it, the more it degrades. Keep the unused mushroom in the same container .Do not move the mushroom spawn into another bag. The original bag it came with mushroom spawn is made for the holding it. If you have some unused mushroom spawn keep the bag in refrigerator in between 32 to 35 Fahrenheit .Your mushroom should be keep in two months .Even If you are going to buy mushroom spawn from store keep the thermakol bag with you and select the night time because as you the temperature is low in night.
Check out the Mushroom Benefits in terms of money
Income Generation :
- if you consider the mushroom as a cash crop and focus on it .You can earn very good money from mushroom growing. Mushroom is a single crop which could be grow in 25 to 30 days.
- Once you have done the spawning, it would create mycelium branches and after one week it would completely visible. Once it started growing you can harvest mushroom and sell all mushroom in near by market and Mandi on good price. The cost of mushroom is almost 100 Rs per Kg and it will around 200 Rs per Kg.Minimum Investment: Mushroom is a perfect crop for the farmers and women too. Because all the raw material which would use by Mushroom is easily available in Villages like Wheat straw for oyster.
Livelihood Opportunity: the life style is depend on money, because If you want to let your children study in school. It costs the fee and If you are purchasing the input for the farm or marriage of daughter. Every place needed the money. So grow the mushroom and fell free from the debt of Mahajan.
As we have seen mushroom farming ,cultivation but If We not talk about the recipes which makes mushroom popular among the marriage ceremony, at home party and family house. So, here, I am telling you about the some special recipes. So Let’s start from here:
Step -1: clean it with clean water before making the mushroom gravy. Now cut it into small pieces. Now prepare the garlic paste, tomato paste and onion paste and keep these aside for mushroom masala for tasty.
Step -2: Now, I will make the mushroom gravy, So start the gas and keep the pressure cooker on gas. When the cooker was heat then pours the oil into it. After heating the oil, mix Hing ,Jeera and methi Patta. After 30 seconds, fry with onion paste. Once it is fried, we mix other MASALA as per taste. Fry it till oil let the mixture paste. It will take 10 minutes to fry the Masala. Keep the Gas at medium anf keep in mind that it’s not burnt.
Step -3: Once all done, mix the mushroom in Mushroom gravy and serve the family members with mushroom sabji.
As per above process, you can make the mushroom biryani, mushroom fried rice and mushroom chilli. Friends, as we go to the hotel and Restaurant, all of them , keep the gravy ready and did the same process. In next article , we will learn how to make the mushroom soup recipe and biryani.
Case Study of Saharanpur Farmer who do mushroom farming
He explains, “In 2009, I started mushroom cultivation by building a small hut of thirty quintal compost. Today I plant button mushrooms in about 6000 bags a year, and eight thousand bags of oyster mushrooms. Explains, “Initially I had problems, but I was trained by KVK scientist Kushwaha ji and still he helps us fully. From time to time, they come and tell us how to protect mushroom cultivation from diseases, how to make compost.